The American Academy is a private organization, established by a group of American students. Its purpose is to bring together a small faculty of American scholars with a selected group of Europeans for the purpose of studying together some aspects of American civilization.

The First Session will take place from I June 1947 through 30 June 1947 at Schloss Fyrmian, Salzburg, Austria (American Zone). Meals and lodging at Schloss Fyrmian will be provided at no charge. Participants are requested to bring their own towels and bedclothes (sheets, blankets or sleeping bags) and to arrange their own transportation to Salzburg. A vehicle from the Schloss will meet all trains arriving at the Hauptbahnhof Salzburg on I June 1947.

A copy of this invitation, bearing the name of the participant and the endorsement of the 7753rd Military Government Detachment, United States Army, will be sufficient documentation to admit such participant (properly identified by a Passport or Identity Card) to the United States Zone of Austria at the following entry points only:


Linz (Enns River Bridge)

GrossgIockner Pass (Hochalpenstrasse)

Participants who experience difficulty in obtaining any travel permission required in their own country should contact

Mr. Peter Devereaux 
Schloss Fyrmian 
Salzburg (U.S. Zone Austria)

The following invited participant at the First Session of the American Academy in Europe is authorized to enter the U.S. Zone Austria between I June 1947 and 30 June 1947:

ADDRESS: ------------------------------------------------------  NATIONALITY: -----------------
ENTRY APPROVED: Stamp (Stempel)

U.S. Forces Austria 
7753 MiL Gov. Det. 
APO 54I (Land Salzburg)

George W. Tyson, Jr.
Capt.                 FA 
Executive Officer 





This Outline has been prepared in general terms. It should be considered more as a suggestion, and is in all respects subject to change as the needs and objectives of the Session develop in practice.

The Session will divide itself generally into three aspects of American civilization, which will be presented concurrently: 

  1. American History, 
  2. American Literature, and 
  3. American Government. 
The European participants will in most cases concentrate in one of these fields by the reading the assigned works and participating in seminar discussions; they are, however, requested to attend the lectures in all three fields. 
  • The lectures will be in more general terms than the seminars, and will not necessarily require detailed participation. 
  • The seminars, on the other hand, will be conducted in groups of ten or twelve and on the assumption that the participants are not only familiar With the assigned works but are prepared to engage in meaningful discussion about them.
While the exact schedule has not been worked out, it is expected that participants will attend one lecture every day except Sunday, and will meet in seminars about three times every week.

While participants are invited to bring any books they like, the Academy has attempted to collect an adequate library. Some of the books on the reading lists have been selected (in preference to other titles) because it was easier to obtain copies. Nevertheless, there will be some inevitable shortages, and a certain amount of sharing will be necessary.

There will be no examinations.




Professor Boswell Hyde, Harvard University

The main purpose of this course will be to acquaint European scholars with the most important trends in the history of the American people and to introduce some of the best American historical writing. The development of ideas and institutions -political, social and economic- will be stressed rather than the accumulation of data about particular events. Lectures will deal with such topics as 
  • the Origins of the American Revolution; 
  • the Winning of the West; 
  • the Issue of Slavery and the Civil War; 
  • the Continental Empire and "Manifest Destiny"; 
  • the Age of Iron and Money; 
  • the Waves of Immigration; 
  • America's Role in the First World War 
    • Emotionalism, 
    • Idealism, 
    • Frustration, 
    • Reaction; 
  • Normalcy, Boom and Depression; 
  • Roosevelt and the New Deal; 
  • What Price Neutrality? 

  • America First vs. Lend-Lease; 
  • Political Attitudes and Military Strategy in the Second World War; 
  • Partition and Occupation, or, Where Do We Go From Here? 
  • The Uses of the Past.

Some of these topics will be probed to greater depth in the seminar discussions, where the principal focus will he on the American experience in Europe since 1918.

All participants will be expected to read either Charles A. & Mary Beard The Rise of American Civilization (New York, 1927) or Allan. Nevins and Henry Steele Commager The Pocket History of the United States (New York, 1943) plus two of the following:

Frederick Jackson Turner The Rise of the New West 1819 - 1829 (New York, 1906)

Arthur M. Schlesinger Political and Social Growth Of the UnitedStates 1852 - 1933 (Rev. Ed. New York, 1937)

Henry Adams The Formative Years. The History of the UnitedStates of America during the Administration of Jefferson andMadison (Rev. Ed., condensed and edited by Herbert Agar. Boston, 1947)

Allan Nevins The Emergence of Modem America 1865 - 1878(New York, 1927)

Walter Millis, The Road to War, America 1914 - 1917 (Boston, 1935) 

Bemard De Voto, The Year of Decision: 1846 (Boston, 1943)

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson (New York, 1945)

Boswell Hyde Fremont and the Dream of Empire (Cambridge, 1941)




Professor Joseph Kaufman, Columbia University

No attempt will be made to survey the body of American Literature. Rather, the emphasis in the lectures will be upon the works of those writers who appear, from the vantage point of 1947, to have exerted the greatest influence on the development of two literary forms: the novel and the short story.

Examination in the development of the American novel will follow this approximate course.

  1. The struggle of the individual to free himself from the burdens of his nature. 
    • Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter
    • Herman Melville Moby Dick.
  2. A native original. 
    • Mark Twain
      • Huckleberry Finn, 
      • Innocents Abroad.
  3. Sophistication and introspection. 
    • Henry James The Ambassadors
    • Edith Wharton The House of Mirth.
  4. Naturalism. 
    1. Theodore Dreiser Sister Carrie.
  5. Satire and social comment. 
    • Sinclair Lewis Babbitt
    • John P. Marquand The Late George Apley
    • John Dos Passos USA
    • John Steinbeck The Grapes of Wrath
    • John O'Hara Appointment in Samarra.
  6. The new romanticism at home and abroad. 
    • Ernest Hemingway 
      • The Sun Also Rises
      • A Farewell to Arms
    • F. Scott Fitzgerald 
      • The Great Gatsby
      • Tender Is the Night
    • Thomas Wolfe 
      • Of Time and the River
      • You Can't Go Home Again
    • William Faulkner The Sound and the Fury.
Discussions about the short story will focus on the work of 
  • Mark Twain, 
  • Bret Harte, 
  • Ambrose Bierce, 
  • Henry James, 
  • 0. Henry, 
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald, 
  • Ring Lardner, 
  • Dorothy Parker, 
  • John O'Hara and 
  • Nancy Hale.

All of the stories to be discussed can be found in The Short Story as an American Art Form edited and with commentary by Joseph Kaufman. Modern Library Edition, 1945.




Professor Gordon H. Leffingwell, Jr., Yale University

An attempt will be made to examine the American political scene from several different angles. The lectures will fall into three general groupings:
  1. Philosophical Roots
    • The Dreamers in the Nights of Time: 
      • Plato, 
      • Locke, 
      • Hume, 
      • Rousseau, 
      • Paine; 
    • The Awakening and Implementation: 
      • Adams, 
      • Jefferson, 
      • Hamilton, 
      • Madison, 
      • Marshall.
  2. Political Structure Today
    • The Three Branches-Executive Apparatus; 
      • Congress: Somehow it works; 
      • The Judiciary: What does the Constitution mean? 
      • Federalism in Theory and Practice; 
      • The States: Source or Residue? 
      • County and Local Government; 
      • The Megalopolis: Who Owns New York?
  3. Special Problems
    • The Political Parties: How they grew and is there any difference? 
    • The Three New Branches: 
      • Big Covemment, 
      • Big Business and 
      • Big Labor, 
      or, What Have You Done For Me Lately? 
    • Rural electoral distortion: Should fields and mountains vote? 
    • The Machines: Social Contract via Christmas Turkey. 
    • The Negroes: What is that ticking in the cellar?
Participants concentrating in the Politics course will be divided into three seminars, each of which will concentrate on a detailed analysis of a different relatively narrow problem:
  • Seminar A. Who makes foreign policy? 

  • This group will study the political background of America's entry into the Second World War, including 
    • the activities of the America First Committee, 
    • the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies, 
    • the Neutrality Acts, 
    • the Presidential Campaign of 1940, 
    • the Destroyer Deal, and 
    • the Lend-Lease Program.
  • Seminar B. Threat or Phobia? Communism in the United States. 

  • This seminar will conduct an investigation into 
    • the activities of various types of Communist groups and 
    • the reaction to these activities on the part of 
      • different segments of society and 
      • the American power structure. 
    Emphasis will be placed 
    • on the shifts in American attitudes toward Communist doctrines and, to a lesser extent, 
    • on the convolutions of these doctrines themselves.
  • Seminar C. Hat in the Ring

  • Using 
    • actual newspaper files, 
    • campaign literature, 
    • financial reports and 
    • correspondence, 
    this seminar will study the 1946 election battle for the seat of the Third Congressional District of Connecticut in the U.S. House of Representatives. 
    • The motivations of both candidates, 
    • their backing in the district and 
    • their campaign techniques 
    will be examined, as will 
    • the socioeconomic reasons which contributed to the result. 
    (It is hoped that both the winner, Congressman Francis H. Leffingwell, and the loser, Professor Martin B. Crossman of Yale University, will have an opportunity to visit the Schloss and meet with this seminar -on separate oecasions!)

Reading List

No single text covers the range of this course. The emphasis will be upon three classic reports about America by astute and sympathetic visitors: Tocqueville, Bryce and Myrdal. Reading assignments from their works will be made from time to time.

  • Bryce, James Bryee, Viscount The American Commonwealth New York and London (rev. ed. 1910)
  • Tocqueville, Alexis Charles Henri Maurice C1erel de, Democracy in America (First Borzoi edition, foreword by Harold J. Laski. New York, 1945)
  • Myrdal, Gunnar An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (New York and London, 1944)
The Academy has made an effort to collect a wide sample of current American periodicals such as:  New issues should arrive from time to time.

Arrangements have also been made to airmail six copies of the 

to the Schloss every day.

Extensive use will be made of these sources.

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1961 - A Point of View
[1] The annual meeting of the stockholders of the Boatwright Corporation
[2] What are you going to do about Boatwright and what are you going to do about yourself?
[3] Have we learned anything this evening, Doctor?
[4] Producing results?
[5] Alexander's Feast
[6] How'd you like to go over to Salzburg for a month with me?

1947 - An Island
[7] You're not going to Berlin. You're staying here.
[8] All right, we're the Military Government.
[9] The Americans are teaching us to be democratic instead of fascistic.
[10] Well, this is Fasching.
[11] Letters after Ash Wednesday
[12] Say Boris is at Schloss Fyrmian.
>[13] THE AMERICAN ACADEMY IN EUROPE - Prospectus for the First Session
[14] Learn to think of people as individuals.
[15] Parlez-moi d'amour, redites-moi des choses tendres.
[16] Not one thing left to show that you've ever been on earth? -"Sources of Soviet Conduct"
[17] A Countess, a Prussian Officer and a Ländler
[18] Now this part of your life is over and I'm sending you home.
[19] A father who's too busy to watch his son die. - The Spring of 1961
[20] I cannot sell Schloss Fyrmian to the Academy.

1961 - A Change of Air
[21] The first thing I saw was the Festung Hohensalzburg far in the distance, silhouetted against the shadowy curtain of the high mountains.
[22] Next day at the Academy we got to work - Graham, you know what Fleischer did?
[23] Im weißen Rößl am Wolfgangsee
[24] Brockaw writing a thesis on Austrian baroque architecture? - Boatwright Corporation and Boris Fleischer, plaintiffs
[25] You know there a Mr. Devereaux? Mr. Armistead Devereaux?
[26] I think always of Peter Devereaux.
[27] It sounds like an act of desperation, and it won't hold up in court.
[28] In those Oklahoma Hills WHERE AH WAS BOW-AHHHN!
[29] ... that we should meet again like this . . . I think perhaps there is a reason.
[30] "Is there here an American by name of Brockaw?"
[31] This is Boris Fleischer!
[32] "Does Hans work for Gehlen?" Paola shook her head. "More the other way around."
[33] Won't you please come home? Everybody needs you, I most of all.
[34] With this Waffenstillstand you have time now.
[35] You're going to regret this for the rest of your life!
[36] We Europeans would not do it. None of us. - People think you need medical attention.
[37] Will they trust you?
[38] Some things about the U.S.A. are perhaps rather important, and to us impressive.
[39] You're going to need a good lawyer.

version: March 2, 2004
Address of this Page
Arthur R.G. Solmssen, Joachim Gruber